Isabel la Católica Free read ¶ 104

Manuel Fernández Álvarez Ò 4 Free read

Isabel la Católica Free read ¶ 104 Ú Manuel Fernández Álvarez narra con su personal y amena prosa la vida de Isabel la Católica Desde su nacimiento pasando por la conuista del poder las bases económicas de la época la estructura social la guerra de Granada la expulsión de los judíos el descubrimiento de América el triunfo del Imperio esManuel Fernández Álvarez narra con su personal y amena prosa la vida de Isabel la Católica Desde su nacimiento pasando por la conuista del poder las bases económicas de la época la estructura social la guerra de Granada la expulsión de los judíos el descubrimiento de América el triunfo del Imperio español hasta la muerte de la reina Con Isabel la Católica estamos ante un personaje clave de nuestra historia acaso el más importante si hemos de creer al auto. Spain also has its The TudorsWhat I mean is that there has been a blockbuster Television production on Isabel the ueen of Castile 1451 1504 I felt highly reluctant to watch it but was finally swayed by the comment circulating amongst viewers that the popular series was rather faithful to historical fact So I gave it a goand got hooked and enjoyed itTo counteract the possible distortions from the TV version though I picked up this biography by Manuel Fernández Álvarez MFA one of my favourite Spanish historians He specializes on biographies from the 15 16C I particularly like the way he generously intersperses uotes from original sourcesAnd I found may be not to my surprise that the film producers must have followed very closely this bookMFA distinguishes three phases in Isabel’s life And the Series had three Seasons Perfect fitting As an introduction to the period to tune in the reader MFA reminds us of three important aspects of the period the conuest of Constantinople in 1453; the explorations undertaken by the Portuguese navigators from a few generations earlier; and the new and strong cultural impetus that we now call the Italian Renaissance Even if later posterity became critical Isabel became a model ueen during her times and for her immediate posterity As Castiglione recorded in his The Book of the Courtier there has been nowhere in the world in our time any distinguished example of true goodness and religion of greatness of spirit of prudence and chaste behaviour of courtesy and liberality in short of every virtue than ueen Isabella Like most European monarchs Isabel had mixed heritage She was half Portuguese De Avís and a uarter Lancaster Catherine of Lancaster was her paternal grandmother and it was in her honour that she would name one of her girls Catalina And this was the reason why Catalina was chosen as the fitting bride to marry back into the English crown And all would be well1 IN UEST OF POWER The early years of Isabel’s life were turbulent and rich of intrigues She however took control of her life With no real court of her own and as the unlikely heir in her third position in the line of succession she managed first to become a peon to her half brother King Enriue IV and ward off his attempts to marry her off according to his political goals Instead she chose for herself according to her own political aims as well as personal preferences She chose Fernando the heir to the crown of Aragón and already King of Sicily She had never met him but was of a similar age and had a good reputation As a proven soldier and a proven father to a couple of illegitimate children he seemed the best alternative She was right They made an extraordinary couple She had made him sign a document in which it was clearly stipulated that he could only act as a consort in the ruling of CastileShe then succeeded in proclaiming herself the rightful ueen of Castile dismissing the daughter of the King’s wife She was giving credence to the rumours that the girl Juana was illegitimate Juana is known as Juana la Beltraneja – after Beltrán the presumed lover of the widowed ueenFernando was lucky to be chosen by her For at that time the Crown of Castile was almost four times that of Aragón and had six times its population Castile had in effect around 70% of the population of the whole Iberian Peninsula The composite crown of Aragón was also experiencing an economic decline in particular in Catalonia and even if the Kingdom of Valencia was going through its golden age it was not sufficient to counterweigh the slump in the Barcelona County Once Isabel had her crown a second phase of problems began She had to gain full control and tame the nobles But let’s read Castiglione again when she came to the throne she found the greater part of Castile held by the grandees; nevertheless she recovered it all by acting so justly and in such a manner that the very same men who were deprived stayed loyal to her and content to give up what they held The court at the time was itinerant There was not yet a political centre or capital so during these years during which she had to defend her dynastic role and subjugate the nobles she was always on the move from one province and castle to another A full civil war in fact erupted and degenerated into a war with neighbouring Portugal During this time she certainly forged her strong personality She was determined brave independent stubborn and fanatically pious Once when she was pregnant she rode overnight through the harsh Castilian winter to get close to the battlefield She lost her son Another time she ignored the indications of her advisors and she entered again mounted a town up in armed rebellion She was peacefully received and welcomed by the inhabitants2 GREAT ENTERPRISESThe middle period the one of great undertakings is marked by the year 1492 Several things happened All celebrated then; not all celebrated nowThe scholar Antonio de Nebrija published the first Grammar of the Spanish language May be the firs of any Romance language He dedicated it to her This book is now considered the cornerstone of the Spanish languageThis was also the year of the celebrated arrival in the Americas and I will not go into this except to point out that although the team of scholars who examined Columbus proposals thought rightly that he was mistaken he succeeded in convincing Isabel There certainly was an awareness of what Portugal was achieving A closer understanding sprung between Isabel and the Genoese And Columbus’s son Diego became a page in the court of the heir Juan And it was also in 1492 that the conuest of the remaining enclave still held by the Muslims in the peninsula the Kingdom of Granada was finalized This was the last stage of the “Reconuista” which had begun almost eight centuries before and took about ten years of constant fighting in the South The fall of Constantinople had awaken Christian fears and gave a new impetus to this task of gaining back lost territories The Muslim kingdom was so torn by internal fights within the ruling family that I was glad to have the TV version that made it easier to follow who was who and who betrayed whom It was also filmed extensively in the beautiful Alhambra and the glorious scene for the burial of Muley Hacén Abu l Hasan Ali in the snowy peaks of Sierra Nevada is unforgettableAlthough the Chief of her armies was her husband when Isabel learnt that his strategy was to storm into the palace of the Alhambra she immediately overrode his instructions and decreed that they would undertake instead a conuest by attrition and that the Alhambra could not be touched She settled herself on the battlefield camps to supervise that things were done as she wanted them Current tourists should be grateful to her1492 was also a fatal year for a couple other eventsThe fate of the Jewish population living in Europe started running into difficulties with the onset of the Crusades From the first at the end of the 11C Christian hostility grew until it reached the succession of expulsions This first happened in England then in Normandy and France to name a few Many fled towards the East but a considerable proportion established themselves in the Iberian Peninsula where they succeeded in settling very prosperous communities and integrating well with the rest of the society Isabel had several close advisors from the Jewish community and her husband Fernando had Jewish bloodHowever it was also during the same year as the Conuest of Granada and is related to it the ruling was named the Alhambra Edict and was signed two months after Granada fell After gaining full control of what the monarchs considered their territories maintaining peace became their objective For this they thought that a homogeneous and Christian population was necessary Jews had already been attracting rejection from sections of the Christian population a few decades before Isabel’s time but bigotry was increasing The prosperity and political clout of the Jews were envied Subseuent times proved this Edict to have been a blunder Precisely because the Jews were well integrated while holding also some crucial sectors such as finance their being extirpated from what had become their country left the country amputated May be the later financing of expansion and Empire would have been managed better and not by accumulating external debt had the Jewish bankers managed itAs MFA says this remains one of the darkest pages in the History of Spain This dark page led to another one even darker the Inuisition And again the TV series was pretty successful in characterizing Toruemada not as the obvious Devil but as a soft spoken suave insinuatory Dominican who playing on the fanatic religiosity of the ueen and the political objectives of the King succeeded in establishing this rule of terror One of the most maddening conditions and which became crucial for its success was that incriminators could remain anonymous This was the opening of the lid of a Pandora box of accumulated hatredsAnd to add ‘One thing’ on the year 1492 This was also when Lorenzo de Medici Il Magnifico died in Florence With his death the Lodi League came to an end The repercussions on Aragón and Castile became apparent a few years later3 TRIUMPHS AND TEARSIn the last phase it would be the time to focus on Aragón with its involvement with the Kingdom of Naples the conflicts with France and the Italian wars but I will leave that for when I write the review on Fernando el Católico The last phase of Isabel was tragic both on personal and political grounds And they were connectedOnce having gained stability and balance the union of these two Kingdoms was on its way to become one of the new countries of the modern European era But for this the dynastic succession was paramount They needed a son to unite both crowns into one single country Castile accepted women as ruler ueens Isabel was one but Aragón did notIsabel had six pregnancies and seven children Her first son died as a result of her night ride The boy in the twins also died But there was one remaining son Juan on whom all the hopes were projected But soon after marrying the daughter of Emperor Maximilian Juan diedIsabel was heartbrokenThen the eldest daughter Isabel who had married the heir of Portugal but became a widow at a young age after insistence by her parents married again the new Portuguese King Isabel the daughter died on childbirth leaving little Miguel as the heir to the three Kingdoms Portugal Castile and Aragón He also died as an infant Had this death been averted the posterior history of the Peninsula would have been very differentIsabel was in despairThe succession had to go to the next in line Juana who had married the son of the Emperor Maximilian Felipe el Hermoso Philip the Fair and who had also given birth to a son a few months before the death of little Miguel This son was Carlos The future EmperorBut Juana was losing her senses As Juana la Loca the Mad she was completely besotted with her somewhat daft husband who was intent in controlling herIsabel and Fernando were horrified Apart from the personal tragedy of so many deaths they were seeing all their work about to topple Philip was clearly acting as a vassal of the King of France and were the insane daughter to inherit the crown of Castile it would certainly fall under King Louis XII’s clawsWith these dire prospects Isabel fell ill Before dying she left her Will which has become famous for a couple of codicils One was that her husband who was only a Consort for the Kingdom of Castile would be the Regent to assist the daughter Juana And second and significant she ordered that the inhabitants of the Americas be treated justly as neighbours and that neither personal nor material harm should be imposed upon them She abolished slavery ue no consientan ni den lugar a ue los indios vecinos y moradores de las Indias y Tierra Firme ganadas y por ganar reciban agravio alguno en sus personas ni bienes antes al contrario ue sean bien y justamente tratados y si han recibido algún agravio ue lo remedien y provean para ue no se sobrepase en cosa alguna lo ue en las cartas apostólicas de dicha concesión se mandaba y establecía And to read Castiglione again on her death Although she is no longer living her authority endures like a wheel that has been spun vigorously for a long time and then though no one is turning it any longer continues to turn for a good space by itself From Imperial Spain 1469 1716

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R Y uizá nadie como él para comentarlo tal como hace en la dedicatoria autógrafa con la ue se abre este libro Por eso la recogemos auí como un homenaje ue la editorial uiere ofrecer a uno de sus más veteranos colaboradores ue ha empeñado toda su vida en el estudio de nuestro pasado A uienes en lo íntimo de sus moradas han abierto este libro con la esperanza de saber algo más sobre la reina Isabel y sobre su época ue se trata de un personaje importante lo sa. La reina más inteligente de la historia española y uizás del mundo entero Y todo ello en una época de miseria pestes guerras reconuistas y descubrimientos El lenguaje del historiador y autor de este libro es de alta calidad He aprendido el significado de fuegos en relación a la población y la utilizo en mis tours de guía turístico en Brujas Me hubiera gustado saber más acerca de la reina; cuáles eran sus aficiones ué hacía en su tiempo libre además de su trabajo como reina ué lenguas intentaba hablar ué comía etc También me habría gustado saber si tenía algún interés en saber utilizar la espada tirar en arco montar a caballoPor todo lo demás el libro es ESPECTACULAR Enhorabuena por lo conseguido a Manuel Fernández Álvarez y a toda la gente ue cita en este libro importante para la historia de Castilla de España y de las mujeres reinas de la historia 10

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Isabel la CatólicaBeis muy bien; puede ue no haya otro igual en toda nuestra historia Y ue en su reinado ocurrieron grandes cosas algunas de las ue invitan a las recias polémicas también lo sabeis perfectamente Por eso he de confesaros ue escribí este libro con el mayor cuidado Pero también con gran ilusión incluso con pasión a veces Pues bien yo uisiera ue algo de esa ilusión y de esa pasión llegara hasta vosotros Eso uerría decir ue mi tarea no ha sido en balde Cordialment. Spaanstalig “meesterwerk” over het leven van de Katholieke Koningin Isabella Een zeer diepgaand boek uit een reeks van Historische boeken van Manuel Fernández Álvarez Jammer dat deze boeken niet vertaald zijn naar het Nederlands Waarom eigenlijk