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review Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge 107 ð Genetic engineering and the cloning of organisms are “the ultimate expression of the commercialization of science and the commodification of nature Life itself is being colonized” according to renowned environmentalist Vandana Shiva The resistance to this biopiracy she aGenetic engineering and the cloning of organisms are “the ultimate expression of the commercialization of science and the commodification of nature Life itself is being colonized” according to renowned environmentalist Vandana Shiva The resistance to this biopiracy she argues is th. I only recently read her for the first time and had my giant activist writer crush but Biopiracy might have been even better Another three of her books were sitting on the shelves here happy days so I picked this one upColonialism and capitalism vs life with insights into all three I loved it and am finding it very useful in thinking about how we arrived where we are now and just what we are up against as well as where hope liesI'm going to be a little sneaky and start with the summation and uotes from the conclusion as an overview Shiva is arguing that there have been three waves of globalization – the 1st through the initial colonization by European powers the 2nd through the imposition of the ‘Western idea of ‘development’ during the postcolonial era over the past five decades and the 3rd unleashed approximately 5 years ago through ‘free trade’ and the commodification of life itself Biopiracy She argues that each time a global order has tried to wipe out diversity and impose homogeneity disorder and disintegration have been induced not removed 105This process of continuing destruction and disorder is in many ways all rooted in that first wave of colonisation that initial period of destruction and violence that continues on through our present This is one of the key transformations I think and this environmentalist and feminist lens such an interesting angle to look at the issue from‘Resource’ originally implied liferegenerationWith the rise of industrialism and colonialism a shift in meaning took place ‘Natural resources’ became inputs for industrial commodity production and colonial trade Nature was transformed into dead and manipulable matter Its capacity to renew and grow had been denied The violence against nature and the disruption of its delicate interconnections was a necessary part of denying its self organizing capacity And this violence against nature in turn translated into violence in societyAnything not fully managed or controlled by European men was seen as a threat This included nature non Western societies and women What was self organized was considered wild out of control and uncivilized When self organization is perceived as chaos it creates a context to impose a coercive and violent order for the betterment and improvement of the ‘other’ whose intrinsic order is then disrupted and destroyedThis is such a key insight on the intrinsic connection between violence and capitalism the ways that violence against nature is mirrored by and indivisible from violence against society The nature of this violence has changed but has the same roots and is manifested through all three wavesI don't uite know why I am so fascinated by its beginnings but so I am So are many others luckily and the intro really gets into it 'Piracy Through patents The Second Coming of Columbus'Columbus set a precedent when he treated the license to conuer non European peoples as a natural right of European men The land titles issued by the pope through European kings and ueens were the first patents The colonizer's freedom was built on the slavery and subjugation of the people with original rights to the land this violent takeover was rendered 'natural' by defining the colonized people as nature thus denying them their humanity and freedomJohn Locke's treatise on property effectually legitimized this same process of theft and robbery during the enclosure movement in Europe Locke clearly articulated capitalism's freedom to build as the freedom to steel property is created by removing resources from nature and mixing them with labour This 'labour' is not physical but labour in its 'spiritual' form as manifested in the control of capital According to Locke only those who own capital have the natural right to own natural resources a right that supersedes the common rights of others with prior claims Capital is thus defined as a source of freedom that at the same time denies freedom to the land forests rivers and biodiversity that capital claims as its own and to others whose rights are based on their labour 8 9This is well on point tooIt seems that the Western powers are still driven by the colonizing impulse to discover conuer own and possess everything every society every culture The colonies have now been extended to the interior spaces the 'genetic codes' of life forms from microbes and plants to animals including humans 9On to biopiracyAt the heart of Columbus's discovery was the treatment of piracy as a natural right of the colonizer necessary for the deliverance of the colonized Biopiracy is the Columbian 'discovery' 500 years after Columbus Through patents and genetic engineering new colonies are being carved out The land the forests the rivers the oceans and the atmosphere have all been colonized eroded and polluted capital now has to look for new colonies to invade and exploit for its further accumulation These new colonies are in my view interior spaces of the bodies of women plants and animals Resistance to biopiracy is a resistance to the ultimate colonization of life itself of the future of evolution as well as the future of non Western traditions of relating to and knowing nature It is a struggle to protect the freedom of diverse species to evolve It is a struggle to protect the freedom of diverse cultures to evolve It is a struggle to conserve both cultural and biological diversity 11There is so much in here specific to law and policy lots about the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade GATT the Uruguay round in 1994 that set up the reuirement of signing on to TRIPS or Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights that brought patenting into international trade agreements I have focused on the broader ideas and philosophies though I love that this a book to incite and facilitate meaningful struggle to change these terrifying and unjust world systems She starts with a very interesting look at the nature of creativity 1 Knowledge Creativity and Intellectual Property Rights What is creativity This is at the heart of the current debates about patents on life Patents on life enclose the creativity inherent in living systems that reproduce and multiply in self organized freedom They enclose the interior spaces of the bodies of women plants and animals They also enclose the free spaces of intellectual creativity by transforming publicly generated knowledge into private property Intellectual property rights on life forms are supposed to reward and stimulate creativity their impact is actually the opposite to stifle the creativity intrinsic to life forms and the social production of knowledge 13She examines three different kinds of creativity1 The creativity inherent in living organisms that allows them to evolve recreate and regenerate themselves2 The creativity of indigenous communities that have developed knowledge systems to conserve and utilize the rich biological diversity of our planet3 The creativity of modern scientists in university of corporate laboratories who find ways to use living organisms to generate profits 14Only the third kind of creativity is acknowledged under Intellectual Property Rights systems as defined under GATT the biodiversity convention or the lovely US Trade Act which includes the Special 301 clause – this is she argues ‘a prescription for a monoculture of language’ 15All of this marks the ongoing shift from common rights to private rights as well as a world where knowledge is recognized only when it generates profits rather than when it meets social needs Central to this is the idea that people will only innovate if they can profit from their innovation through a system of patent protection This is so ludicrous yet so ubiuitousIt is clear why such a lethal combination of ideas leads to the destruction cultural commons and skews research away from areas that are key in terms of importance and or social need to focus on profit generating studiesThis is an enclosure of the intellectual commons and I am loving the idea of commons broadened in this way 2 Can Life Be Made Can Life be Owned Redefining Biodiversity This describes how the patenting of genes and new strains created in laboratories have been redefined as ‘biotechnological invention’ so that they can be made proprietary The corporate argument for the right to patent such things is that they are new ‘invented' by human beings For tehse same genes present in food that people are attempting to refrain from eating or demanidning that they be identified corporate arguments are that they are perfectly natural and therefore harmlessAgain to the subject of violencePatenting living organisms encourages two forms of violence First life forms are treated as if they are mere machines thus denying their self organizing capacity Second by allowing the patenting of future generations of plants and animals the self reproducing capacity of living organisms is denied 29I also found this look at reductionist biology uite interesting and a critiue that is interesting to think through around other issues of diversity in relation to other kinds of positivism in the social sciencesReductionism biology is multifaceted At the species level this reductionism puts value on only one species—humans—and generates an instrumental value for all others It therefore displaces and pushes to extinction all species whose instrumental value to humans is small or non existent Monocultures of species and biodiversity erosion are the inevitable conseuences of reductionist thought in biology especially when applied to forestry agriculture and fisheries We call this first order reductionismReductionist biology is increasingly characterized by a second order reductionism—genetic reductionism—the reduction of all behaviour of biological organisms including humans to genes Second order reductionism amplifies the ecological risks of first order reductionism while introducing new issues like the patenting of life forms 30Epistemologically it leads to a machine view of the world and its rich diversity of life forms It makes us forget that living organisms organize themselves It robs us of our capacity for the reverence of life—and without that capacity protection of the diverse species on the planet is impossible 35Living systems are self organized complex diverse characterized by self healing and repair They are resilient one of the latest buzzwords and adaptable all those things being praised by the new thinking around networks and connectivity being written about by Fritjof Capra Nabeel Hamdi permaculturists transitionists and slime mould enthusiasts among othersThe freedom for diverse species and ecosystems to self organize is the basis of ecology Ecological stability derives from the ability of species and ecosystems to adapt evolve and respond 36Seems like it makes sense that we do our best to think this way all the time I like how this is as true of a smallholding such as the one I am working on now as it is for the East End community I was in before I came here Instead we have the likes of Monsanto with their weed killers and scary chemical escalations There is plenty in this chapter about such things if you needed ammunition for your Monsanto driven fury 3 The Seed and the Earth Regeneration lies at the heart of life it has been the central principle guiding sustainable societies Without regeneration there can be no sustainability Modern industrial society however has no time for thinking about regeneration and therefore no space for living regeneratively Its devaluation of the processes of regeneration are the causes of both the ecological crisis and the crisis of sustainability 47Only capitalism and the placing of profit above all things including life itself would strive to erase the capacity to regenerate because that is just insane Yet Monsanto and others have been working at it for years This is of course connected to power and Shive argues it is rooted long ago when the facilitating ideas of production and value emergedThe continuity between regeneration in human and nonhuman nature that was the basis of all ancient worldviews was broken by patriarchy People were separated from nature and the creativity involved in processes of regeneration was denied Creativity became the monopoly of men who were considered to be engaged in production; women were engaged in mere reproduction or recreationlooked upon as non productive 47Thus we enter the third phase of globalization and biopiracy as organisms become the new colonies While the colonisation of land became possible through new technologies of guns etc‘Biotechnology as the handmaiden of capital in the post industrial era makes it possible to colonize and control that which is autonomous free and self regenerative ‘‘While ancient patriarchy used the symbol of the active seed and the passive earth capitalist patriarchy through the new biotechnologies reconstitutes the seed as passive and locates activity and creativity in the engineering mind 49'From Terra Mater to Terra Nullius' a subheading that ties all of this back to the land back to the redefinitions of words to justify conuest and murder over centuriesAll sustainable cultures in their diversity have viewed the earth as terra mater The patriarchal construct of the passivity of earth and the conseuent creation of the colonial category of land as terra nullius served two purposes it denied the existence and prior rights of original inhabitants and it negated the regenerative capacity and life processes of the earth 50Colonialism redefined indigenous peoples as part of natural flora and fauna while the Green Revolution served as a second colonisation of earth defined as terra nullius through an erasing of the existence and importance of the ecological diversity of soil It needed massive and expensive inputs for profit to take placeThe commodified seed is ecologically incomplete and ruptured at two levels First it does not reproduce itself whereas by definition seed is a regenerative resourceSecond it does not produce by itself it needs the help of other purchased inputs 54A perfect pairing to maximise profit Thus the patenting of seedsAnother definition I uite love and hope to think through are these conceptions of ideological boundaries defined and contestedThe transformation of value into disvalue labour into nonlabour knowledge into non knowledge is achieved by two very powerful constructs the production boundary and the creation boundaryThe production boundary is a political construct that excludes regenerative renewable production cycles from the domain of productionWhen economies are confined to the marketplace self sufficiency in the economic domain is seen as economic deficiency The devaluation of women’s work and of work done in subsistence economies in the Third World is the natural outcome of a production boundary constructed by capitalist patriarchyThe creation boundary does to knowledge what the production boundary does to work it excludes the creative contributions of women as well as Third World peasants and tribespeople and vies them as being engaged in unthinking repetitive biological processes 65Here the importance of rebuilding connections where salvation liesThe source of patriarchal power over women and nature lies in separation and fragmentationUnderstanding and sensing connections and relationships is the ecological imperativeThe main contribution of the ecology movement has been the awareness that there is no separation between mind and body human and nature Nature consists of the relationships and connections that provide the very conditions for our life and health This politics of connection and regeneration66 4 Biodiversity and People’s Knowledge The cradle of Biodiversity is the tropics yet it is even now being destroyed through destruction of habitat and homogenization of crops and culture Once a commons all of it is now being enclosed as local knowledge is displaced and devalued in favour of specialized scientific knowledge and gift economies around seeds replaced with patents There is lots here about ‘Bioprospecting’ and how it is given ‘legitimacy’ by the WTO or world bank through corporations paying off indigenous peoples for the knowledge they share only to find they are then refused access to it Really it is all biopiracyWe need to recover our biodiversity commons 5 Tripping Over Life This focuses on the TRIPs agreement in GATT get the chapter title now and how it allows for the monopolization of life; promotes monocultures so destructive to biodiversity; reuires and chemical inputs and thus causes pollution as well as new forms of pollution through GMOs and resistant weeds and pests; undermines any ethic of conservation trough instrumentalisation of people and other species It also alienates rights of people to the land they live on as produce sold elsewhere cuts their connections and sense of stewardshipYou want ammunition to win the argument that all these acronyms are evil You will find it all here 6 Making Peace with Life A final paragraph on violence and monoculture this fascinated me perhaps than anything else as I have worked so much researching segregation and white obsessions with purity and homogeneity that they have defended with such everyday grassroots violence These are so clearly associated one with the other and there is so much here I think to be investigatedHomogenization and monocultures introduce violence at many levels Monocultures are always associated with political violence—the use of coercion control and centralization Without centralized control and coercive force this world filled with the richness of diversity cannot be transformed into homogenous structures and the monocultures cannot be maintainedMonocultures are also associated with ecological violence—a declaration of war against nature’s diverse species This violence not only pushes species toward extinction but controls and maintains monocultures theselves Monocultures are non sustainable and vulnerable to ecological breakdown Uniformity implies that a disturbance to one part of a system is translated into a disturbance to other parts Instead of being contained ecological destabilization tends to be amplified 103 104This book is wonderful and I am looking forward to reading

Biopiracy The Plunder of Nature and KnowledgeGenetic engineering and the cloning of organisms are “the ultimate expression of the commercialization of science and the commodification of nature Life itself is being colonized” according to renowned environmentalist Vandana Shiva The resistance to this biopiracy she argues is th. I only recently read her for the first time and had my giant activist writer crush but Biopiracy might have been even better Another three of her books were sitting on the shelves here happy days so I picked this one upColonialism and capitalism vs life with insights into all three I loved it and am finding it very useful in thinking about how we arrived where we are now and just what we are up against as well as where hope liesI'm going to be a little sneaky and start with the summation and uotes from the conclusion as an overview Shiva is arguing that there have been three waves of globalization – the 1st through the initial colonization by European powers the 2nd through the imposition of the ‘Western idea of ‘development’ during the postcolonial era over the past five decades and the 3rd unleashed approximately 5 years ago through ‘free trade’ and the commodification of life itself Biopiracy She argues that each time a global order has tried to wipe out diversity and impose homogeneity disorder and disintegration have been induced not removed 105This process of continuing destruction and disorder is in many ways all rooted in that first wave of colonisation that initial period of destruction and violence that continues on through our present This is one of the key transformations I think and this environmentalist and feminist lens such an interesting angle to look at the issue from‘Resource’ originally implied liferegenerationWith the rise of industrialism and colonialism a shift in meaning took place ‘Natural resources’ became inputs for industrial commodity production and colonial trade Nature was transformed into dead and manipulable matter Its capacity to renew and grow had been denied The violence against nature and the disruption of its delicate interconnections was a necessary part of denying its self organizing capacity And this violence against nature in turn translated into violence in societyAnything not fully managed or controlled by European men was seen as a threat This included nature non Western societies and women What was self organized was considered wild out of control and uncivilized When self organization is perceived as chaos it creates a context to impose a coercive and violent order for the betterment and improvement of the ‘other’ whose intrinsic order is then disrupted and destroyedThis is such a key insight on the intrinsic connection between violence and capitalism the ways that violence against nature is mirrored by and indivisible from violence against society The nature of this violence has changed but has the same roots and is manifested through all three wavesI don't uite know why I am so fascinated by its beginnings but so I am So are many others luckily and the intro really gets into it 'Piracy Through patents The Second Coming of Columbus'Columbus set a precedent when he treated the license to conuer non European peoples as a natural right of European men The land titles issued by the pope through European kings and ueens were the first patents The colonizer's freedom was built on the slavery and subjugation of the people with original rights to the land this violent takeover was rendered 'natural' by defining the colonized people as nature thus denying them their humanity and freedomJohn Locke's treatise on property effectually legitimized this same process of theft and robbery during the enclosure movement in Europe Locke clearly articulated capitalism's freedom to build as the freedom to steel property is created by removing resources from nature and mixing them with labour This 'labour' is not physical but labour in its 'spiritual' form as manifested in the control of capital According to Locke only those who own capital have the natural right to own natural resources a right that supersedes the common rights of others with prior claims Capital is thus defined as a source of freedom that at the same time denies freedom to the land forests rivers and biodiversity that capital claims as its own and to others whose rights are based on their labour 8 9This is well on point tooIt seems that the Western powers are still driven by the colonizing impulse to discover conuer own and possess everything every society every culture The colonies have now been extended to the interior spaces the 'genetic codes' of life forms from microbes and plants to animals including humans 9On to biopiracyAt the heart of Columbus's discovery was the treatment of piracy as a natural right of the colonizer necessary for the deliverance of the colonized Biopiracy is the Columbian 'discovery' 500 years after Columbus Through patents and genetic engineering new colonies are being carved out The land the forests the rivers the oceans and the atmosphere have all been colonized eroded and polluted capital now has to look for new colonies to invade and exploit for its further accumulation These new colonies are in my view interior spaces of the bodies of women plants and animals Resistance to biopiracy is a resistance to the ultimate colonization of life itself of the future of evolution as well as the future of non Western traditions of relating to and knowing nature It is a struggle to protect the freedom of diverse species to evolve It is a struggle to protect the freedom of diverse cultures to evolve It is a struggle to conserve both cultural and biological diversity 11There is so much in here specific to law and policy lots about the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade GATT the Uruguay round in 1994 that set up the reuirement of signing on to TRIPS or Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights that brought patenting into international trade agreements I have focused on the broader ideas and philosophies though I love that this a book to incite and facilitate meaningful struggle to change these terrifying and unjust world systems She starts with a very interesting look at the nature of creativity 1 Knowledge Creativity and Intellectual Property Rights What is creativity This is at the heart of the current debates about patents on life Patents on life enclose the creativity inherent in living systems that reproduce and multiply in self organized freedom They enclose the interior spaces of the bodies of women plants and animals They also enclose the free spaces of intellectual creativity by transforming publicly generated knowledge into private property Intellectual property rights on life forms are supposed to reward and stimulate creativity their impact is actually the opposite to stifle the creativity intrinsic to life forms and the social production of knowledge 13She examines three different kinds of creativity1 The creativity inherent in living organisms that allows them to evolve recreate and regenerate themselves2 The creativity of indigenous communities that have developed knowledge systems to conserve and utilize the rich biological diversity of our planet3 The creativity of modern scientists in university of corporate laboratories who find ways to use living organisms to generate profits 14Only the third kind of creativity is acknowledged under Intellectual Property Rights systems as defined under GATT the biodiversity convention or the lovely US Trade Act which includes the Special 301 clause – this is she argues ‘a prescription for a monoculture of language’ 15All of this marks the ongoing shift from common rights to private rights as well as a world where knowledge is recognized only when it generates profits rather than when it meets social needs Central to this is the idea that people will only innovate if they can profit from their innovation through a system of patent protection This is so ludicrous yet so ubiuitousIt is clear why such a lethal combination of ideas leads to the destruction cultural commons and skews research away from areas that are key in terms of importance and or social need to focus on profit generating studiesThis is an enclosure of the intellectual commons and I am loving the idea of commons broadened in this way 2 Can Life Be Made Can Life be Owned Redefining Biodiversity This describes how the patenting of genes and new strains created in laboratories have been redefined as ‘biotechnological invention’ so that they can be made proprietary The corporate argument for the right to patent such things is that they are new ‘invented' by human beings For tehse same genes present in food that people are attempting to refrain from eating or demanidning that they be identified corporate arguments are that they are perfectly natural and therefore harmlessAgain to the subject of violencePatenting living organisms encourages two forms of violence First life forms are treated as if they are mere machines thus denying their self organizing capacity Second by allowing the patenting of future generations of plants and animals the self reproducing capacity of living organisms is denied 29I also found this look at reductionist biology uite interesting and a critiue that is interesting to think through around other issues of diversity in relation to other kinds of positivism in the social sciencesReductionism biology is multifaceted At the species level this reductionism puts value on only one species—humans—and generates an instrumental value for all others It therefore displaces and pushes to extinction all species whose instrumental value to humans is small or non existent Monocultures of species and biodiversity erosion are the inevitable conseuences of reductionist thought in biology especially when applied to forestry agriculture and fisheries We call this first order reductionismReductionist biology is increasingly characterized by a second order reductionism—genetic reductionism—the reduction of all behaviour of biological organisms including humans to genes Second order reductionism amplifies the ecological risks of first order reductionism while introducing new issues like the patenting of life forms 30Epistemologically it leads to a machine view of the world and its rich diversity of life forms It makes us forget that living organisms organize themselves It robs us of our capacity for the reverence of life—and without that capacity protection of the diverse species on the planet is impossible 35Living systems are self organized complex diverse characterized by self healing and repair They are resilient one of the latest buzzwords and adaptable all those things being praised by the new thinking around networks and connectivity being written about by Fritjof Capra Nabeel Hamdi permaculturists transitionists and slime mould enthusiasts among othersThe freedom for diverse species and ecosystems to self organize is the basis of ecology Ecological stability derives from the ability of species and ecosystems to adapt evolve and respond 36Seems like it makes sense that we do our best to think this way all the time I like how this is as true of a smallholding such as the one I am working on now as it is for the East End community I was in before I came here Instead we have the likes of Monsanto with their weed killers and scary chemical escalations There is plenty in this chapter about such things if you needed ammunition for your Monsanto driven fury 3 The Seed and the Earth Regeneration lies at the heart of life it has been the central principle guiding sustainable societies Without regeneration there can be no sustainability Modern industrial society however has no time for thinking about regeneration and therefore no space for living regeneratively Its devaluation of the processes of regeneration are the causes of both the ecological crisis and the crisis of sustainability 47Only capitalism and the placing of profit above all things including life itself would strive to erase the capacity to regenerate because that is just insane Yet Monsanto and others have been working at it for years This is of course connected to power and Shive argues it is rooted long ago when the facilitating ideas of production and value emergedThe continuity between regeneration in human and nonhuman nature that was the basis of all ancient worldviews was broken by patriarchy People were separated from nature and the creativity involved in processes of regeneration was denied Creativity became the monopoly of men who were considered to be engaged in production; women were engaged in mere reproduction or recreationlooked upon as non productive 47Thus we enter the third phase of globalization and biopiracy as organisms become the new colonies While the colonisation of land became possible through new technologies of guns etc‘Biotechnology as the handmaiden of capital in the post industrial era makes it possible to colonize and control that which is autonomous free and self regenerative ‘‘While ancient patriarchy used the symbol of the active seed and the passive earth capitalist patriarchy through the new biotechnologies reconstitutes the seed as passive and locates activity and creativity in the engineering mind 49'From Terra Mater to Terra Nullius' a subheading that ties all of this back to the land back to the redefinitions of words to justify conuest and murder over centuriesAll sustainable cultures in their diversity have viewed the earth as terra mater The patriarchal construct of the passivity of earth and the conseuent creation of the colonial category of land as terra nullius served two purposes it denied the existence and prior rights of original inhabitants and it negated the regenerative capacity and life processes of the earth 50Colonialism redefined indigenous peoples as part of natural flora and fauna while the Green Revolution served as a second colonisation of earth defined as terra nullius through an erasing of the existence and importance of the ecological diversity of soil It needed massive and expensive inputs for profit to take placeThe commodified seed is ecologically incomplete and ruptured at two levels First it does not reproduce itself whereas by definition seed is a regenerative resourceSecond it does not produce by itself it needs the help of other purchased inputs 54A perfect pairing to maximise profit Thus the patenting of seedsAnother definition I uite love and hope to think through are these conceptions of ideological boundaries defined and contestedThe transformation of value into disvalue labour into nonlabour knowledge into non knowledge is achieved by two very powerful constructs the production boundary and the creation boundaryThe production boundary is a political construct that excludes regenerative renewable production cycles from the domain of productionWhen economies are confined to the marketplace self sufficiency in the economic domain is seen as economic deficiency The devaluation of women’s work and of work done in subsistence economies in the Third World is the natural outcome of a production boundary constructed by capitalist patriarchyThe creation boundary does to knowledge what the production boundary does to work it excludes the creative contributions of women as well as Third World peasants and tribespeople and vies them as being engaged in unthinking repetitive biological processes 65Here the importance of rebuilding connections where salvation liesThe source of patriarchal power over women and nature lies in separation and fragmentationUnderstanding and sensing connections and relationships is the ecological imperativeThe main contribution of the ecology movement has been the awareness that there is no separation between mind and body human and nature Nature consists of the relationships and connections that provide the very conditions for our life and health This politics of connection and regeneration66 4 Biodiversity and People’s Knowledge The cradle of Biodiversity is the tropics yet it is even now being destroyed through destruction of habitat and homogenization of crops and culture Once a commons all of it is now being enclosed as local knowledge is displaced and devalued in favour of specialized scientific knowledge and gift economies around seeds replaced with patents There is lots here about ‘Bioprospecting’ and how it is given ‘legitimacy’ by the WTO or world bank through corporations paying off indigenous peoples for the knowledge they share only to find they are then refused access to it Really it is all biopiracyWe need to recover our biodiversity commons 5 Tripping Over Life This focuses on the TRIPs agreement in GATT get the chapter title now and how it allows for the monopolization of life; promotes monocultures so destructive to biodiversity; reuires and chemical inputs and thus causes pollution as well as new forms of pollution through GMOs and resistant weeds and pests; undermines any ethic of conservation trough instrumentalisation of people and other species It also alienates rights of people to the land they live on as produce sold elsewhere cuts their connections and sense of stewardshipYou want ammunition to win the argument that all these acronyms are evil You will find it all here 6 Making Peace with Life A final paragraph on violence and monoculture this fascinated me perhaps than anything else as I have worked so much researching segregation and white obsessions with purity and homogeneity that they have defended with such everyday grassroots violence These are so clearly associated one with the other and there is so much here I think to be investigatedHomogenization and monocultures introduce violence at many levels Monocultures are always associated with political violence—the use of coercion control and centralization Without centralized control and coercive force this world filled with the richness of diversity cannot be transformed into homogenous structures and the monocultures cannot be maintainedMonocultures are also associated with ecological violence—a declaration of war against nature’s diverse species This violence not only pushes species toward extinction but controls and maintains monocultures theselves Monocultures are non sustainable and vulnerable to ecological breakdown Uniformity implies that a disturbance to one part of a system is translated into a disturbance to other parts Instead of being contained ecological destabilization tends to be amplified 103 104This book is wonderful and I am looking forward to reading

Download ✓ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Â Vandana Shiva

Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge ☆ The bodies of women plants and animals Featuring a new introduction by the author this edition of Biopiracy is a learned clear and passionately stated objection to the ways in which Western businesses are being allowed to expropriate natural processes and traditional forms of knowledge. Diversity for democracy for nature to save the planet Download ✓ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB Â Vandana Shiva

Vandana Shiva  7 review

Vandana Shiva  7 review E struggle to conserve both cultural and biological diversity As the land forests oceans and atmosphere have already been colonized eroded and polluted corporations are now looking for new colonies to exploit and invade for further accumulation in Shiva’s view the interior spaces of. While I subscribe to many of the arguments Shiva presents in the book I was disappointed by the lack of strongly supported arguments That said it sets forth many important ideas which have been built upon by others However if you’re already familiar with this issue skip it