Doc ✓ Πολιτεία ☆ 475 pages Download Î Naturaltreatment

Ebook Πολιτεία

Doc ✓ Πολιτεία ☆ 475 pages Download Î Naturaltreatment ☆ The central work of one of the West's greatest philosophers The Republic of Plato is a masterpiece of insight and feeling the finest of the Socratic dialogues and one of the great books of Western culture This new translation Ethical and political the aesthetic and mystical and the metaphysical Plato explores in The Republic the elements of the ideal community where morality can be achieved in a balance of wisdom courage and restrain The Republic is where Plato lays down his ideas of an ideal state and its rulers Plato's Utopian state is one which is just and his ideal rulers are philosophers Presented as a series of dialogue between Socrates and Plato's brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon in eleven parts Plato step by step forms his ideal state Part I and II its rulers Part IV and Part VII their education women's position Part VI and the position of art and poetry Part X in the new state Although some of his views are far fetched and absurd many of them are thought provoking And if you examine carefully you will see some truth in many of his viewpoints especially those relating to imperfect societies discussed in Part IXI truly enjoyed Plato's arguments although I cannot say that I agree with them all There are many insightful views though at the same time given the long years between the time in which it was written and which it was read some of the arguments are absurd according to modern standards Plato's Utopian state is one that cannot be realized in reality; even Plato had his doubts about it ever being in existence But on close examination on various governance in the world we see instances where views of Plato having been adopted Taking all these into account it is no wonder that The Republic is regarded as the cornerstone of western philosophy The translation I read was done by Sir Desmond Lee I found it easy to read There were many explanatory notes within that which helped me considerably if not fully to understand the text Overall I loved the read and very happy to say that finally one of my long reading wishes is fulfilled

Plato Æ Πολιτεία Reader

Ew translation captures the dramatic realism poetic beauty intellectual vitality and emotional power of Plato at the height of his powers Deftly weaving three main strands of argument into an artistic whole the Is the attempt to determine the way of man’s life so small a matter in your eyes—to determine how life may be passed by each one of us to the greatest advantage 1344d I propose therefore that we inuire into the nature of justice and injustice first as they appear in the State and secondly in the individual proceeding from the greater to the lesser and comparing them 2368e—369a The Republic An Apology “The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato”  Alfred North WhiteheadThe Famous Republic'The Republic' is either reverenced reviled or just plain ignored Though it keeps resurfacing it has been pushed back often being accused of bigotry racism elitism casteism anti democratic nature the list is endless But it is beyond doubt one of the preeminent philosophical works and has been uoted referenced or adapted by almost all of the major thinkers since The ideas of Socrates have had an afterlife that is as long and varied as the thousand year journey envisioned for souls in the famous Story of Er It is impossible to catalogue the full list of impacts but Whitehead's uote introductory to this review gives adeuate flavor The practical influence of Republic is difficult to gauge than its impact on the theorizing of later thinkers over the centuries individuals have discovered in Plato’s works the inspiration for undertaking political or social or educational reform and have used it as the springboard for much revolutionary thought and deedsRepublic has inspired in addition to all the expository analysis also countless creative interpretations which have shaped our vision of future possibilities limits and of extremities Many depictions of both utopian societies and their dystopian counterparts ranging from Thomas More’s Utopia to Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver's Travels to Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World to George Orwell’s 1984 have their roots in the ideal city brought to life by Socrates Glaucon and Adeimantus Contemporary films such as Gattaca and The Matrix may not owe direct inspiration to Republic but they participate in a long tradition of artistic works that ultimately trace their concerns back to the political social and metaphysical issues raised in RepublicBut in spite of all this the original work retains a reputation for being difficult and hard to penetrate This has meant that the scholars have or less appropriated this brilliantly composed treatise and that is a pity There is great suspense in every page as you eagerly try to work your way through Socrates’ arguments anticipating now guessing now failing now but always on the edge of your seats at the sparkle of his wit and wisdom The dialogues are constructed with an almost unbelievable care and subtlety The drama is breathtaking and all pervading even in the stock responses to theoretical or rhetorical uestions One is never allowed to sit and absorb passively but is forced to constantly interact with the dialogue It is as much fun to read as a Shakespearean dramaThe Offensive RepublicNow to examine some of the reasons why The Republic offends modern sensibilitiesMuch of the contemporary discomfort with Plato’s state arises from his countenancing of censorship a rigid caste system etc But these are in a way unfortunate misunderstandings A close reading of the text would make clear that these catch all descriptions of Plato’s state are not as representative as they are made out to be For example the caste system that is first to get blamed is hardly a rigid hereditary system but a strict meritocratic system that is much eual than anything that we have seen till date It involves a strict battery of tests similar to the aptitude tests of today based on which every individual is to be judged and opponents of I tests may relax these are meant to be much practical examinationsAlso the popular rendering of the title as “The Republic” itself is unfortunate giving it an obvious political and ideological overtone In the manuscripts and ancient citations the title of Republic is given as Politeia “Constitution” or Politeiai “Constitutions”; Peri dikaiou literally “concerning that which is just” is sometimes listed as an alternative titleThe Misunderstood RepublicI had planned on giving a blow by blow defense of the most reviled aspects of The Republic but that is not the point I wish to make here The primary mistake in criticizing The Republic is to assume that it was meant to be a political treatise in the first place It is not The whole argument begins from a uestion of identifying what ‘Justice’ is and whether it is beneficial to live a ‘Just Life’ This is the crux ‘Why’ and ‘How’ to be Just and ‘What’ is this “Justice’ anyway That is what Socrates wants to explore He takes detours in this exploration He uses metaphors of State as larger manifestation of Caves etc But they all lead us back to the same basic uestionTo identify this basic concern we need only look at the complex structure of the dialogue itself Republic’s “narrative” is structured in an almost circular pattern This circular pattern is complex evoking the narrative patterns of epic poems such as Iliad and Odyssey Most basically the dialogue’s two main concerns defining justice and ascertaining its relationship to happiness are treated in two corresponding sections books 2 4 and books 8 9 that are interrupted by what is nominally a series of digressions in books 5 7 and 10 These nominal digressions of course create the dialogue’s most memorable metaphors but they are meant to be digressions that add to the core Not the other way aroundAt its most basic level Republic is an effort to forge a consistent and meaningful redefinition of “Justice” The aretê that is explored lies in nothing outward but rests solely in the mature reason and regard for what is beneficial to the soul Not all the details in these allegories stand up to logical analysis but they are not meant to This is made clear by the fact that The Republic’s interlocutors repeatedly draw attention to the incomplete provisional and at times unsatisfactory nature of their treatment of justice happiness the ideal political community the theory of the ideas the cognitive faculties of human beings etc The inadeuacy of “the method we are employing” is acknowledged at 4435c d at 6504b d and in many other placesThe Personal Constitution A Constitution of the Perfect LifeThe Perfect State sketched out which is the stub of almost all criticism is only an approximation devised to arrive at the Perfect Man and that is why the so called bad aspects can be deemed acceptable The mistake as stated already is to see it as a purely political treatise while it is in fact a treatise on justice and how to live the perfect life the ‘Constitution’ of a perfect life He will look at the city which is within him and take heed that no disorder occur in it such as might arise either from superfluity or from want; and upon this principle he will regulate his property and gain or spend according to his means In the end the state is not fleshed out enough to really form a complete constitution for any state that can exist in reality and not just as an idea But the psychological part it is curious how this part has generated so much less criticism in comparison is we return in the end and all the way in between to the original uestion of how an individual should order his life what his virtues should be It is a political critiue piggy backing on a  personal enuiry and hence any commentary of it cannot treat them differently Censorship slaves aristocracy are all wonderful aspects in an individual but not palatable in a state to modern eyes Hence we can only criticize that the greater to smaller euality is not well realized ie from state individual But then Socrates as above is always eager to make the point about the provisional nature of his metaphor which is only meant to incite thinking and not as an answer that is just not the way to deal with true lovers of truth with true philosophersCheeky counterproposal by the reviewer's alter ego “ Or all the personal stuff is just a convenient cloak for the political criticism that is the real purpose After all we cannot forget the historical milieu in which Plato composed it He had enough axes to grind”Indeed the we approach certain aspects of the text from analytic and conceptual standpoints the we find that Socrates and his companions make innumerable assumptions and leaps of logic that is not satisfactory or fully justified Each of these can be fairly scrutinized and contested and have been We may raise any number of uestions about its relevance to our experiences and value systems Much of Republic especially its political philosophy argument for Censorship and Social structuring is at odds with modern ideals; some readers will doubtless be dissatisfied with among other things its unapologetic elitism and naive almost laughable confidence in the integrity of “philosopher rulers” Some however may find that its critiue of ancient Athenian society opens the door to meaningful uestions about contemporary cultural practices and priorities And even meaningful uestions on how to organize our inner impulses and constitutionPhilosopher Be ThyselfWe need to understand that the Platonic Dialogues in principle are not meant to represent a simple doctrine that can be followed they instead are meant to prepare the way for philosophizing They are not easy guide books to follow They reuire work from the reader above and beyond the ideas presented That is one of the reasons for the dialogue nature in which they are structured Plato’s overarching purpose in writing the Republic was to effect a change in his readers similar to the change that Glaucon and Adeimantus undergo at Socrates’ hands in the fictional world of the dialogue This purpose can be summed up in the word protreptic from the Greek protrepein which means “turn someone forward” hence “propel” “urge on” “exhort” Plato uses literary art which in his case includes but is not limited to philosophical argument to move his reader toward a greater readiness to adopt a just way of lifeThe dialogues are thus intended to perform the function of a living teacher who makes his students think One must philosophize to understand them One must look at the microcosm of the dialogues as well as the macrocosm of the world that we inhabit simultaneously to understand them It is in this process that the dialogues assist insist and themselves provide a training inWe can only conclude by asking uestions in the true spirit of the dialectic method Can we then say that we are convinced that justice as defined by Socrates is something intrinsically valuable Are we convinced that the just man can be “happy” even if he does not enjoy a reputation for justice nor any other material benefit in this life or after OR Have Socrates and his companions persuaded us that the ideal city state they describe in Republic is truly the best political community possible Do we believe that Socrates himself thinks so Is that what we take away from such a deep examination of how to live our lives Or do we let the Story of Er guide us back to the truer motives of the interlocutors I really do not know as yet but whither the argument may blow thither we go

Book ê Πολιτεία Æ Plato

ΠολιτείαThe central work of one of the West's greatest philosophers The Republic of Plato is a masterpiece of insight and feeling the finest of the Socratic dialogues and one of the great books of Western culture This n All the criticisms of Plato are valid He raises straw arguments He manipulates discussions unfairly He doesn't offer realistic solutions And so onBut he is still and for very good reason the most influential philosopher in Western civilization He makes people think Most authors we read today are trying to persuade us to agree with their point of view Plato not so He wants you to disagree with him He wants you to argue with him He wants you to identify the fallacies in his arguments and some are deliberately fallacious In short he wants you to do the most difficult intellectual exercise there is He wants you to think and to think deeply The other thing to realize about Plato is that he is an exuisite poet and craftsman There is nothing accidental about what he writes; there is nothing superfluous Even the most minute seeming points are there for good reason Part of the joy of reading Plato for the third fourth fifth time is to see each time a bit about what he is doing and why he is doing it to come closer to appreciating his extraordinary genius and encountering ever deeply this incredible mind