Authority and the Individual Ebook ✓ 79 pages Download Ó Naturaltreatment

Text Authority and the Individual

Authority and the Individual Ebook ✓ 79 pages Download Ó Naturaltreatment ¿ st With a Terminal Essay Philosophy PoliticsFrom Ancient Greek philosophy to the French Revolution to the modern welfare state in Authority the Individual Bertrand Russell tackles the perennial uestions about the balaTackles the perennial uestions about the balance between authority human freedom With characteristic clarity deep understanding he explores the formation purpose of society Energy and the wish to be effective are beneficent if they can find the right outlet and harmful if not like steam which can either drive the train or burst the boilerFantastic book written by a fantastic man The ideas outlined by Russell are thought with a level of commonsense which might make you think oh wow it really is that obvious However based on the nature of current government and the individual's role in society I believe it is actually Russell's brilliance which makes it come across this wayFor such a short book Authority and the Individual pounds home some extremely optimistic messages about self cultivation and how happiness can still be found in the comparatively strange times that we live in The structure of the book outlines Russell's main ideas about human nature and the tribalistic impulses which we still have rooted within us; how both our individual efforts and functioning within a society are key to being content This gives rise to discussion about the role of government in the preservation of humanity morals and their derivation from the group and the individual human creativity and how the individual can adjust their outlook to cope with grave prospectsThe final chapter rounds up all of the fleshed out arguments in the previous chapters and uses them collectively for a climax which gives a refined amalgamation of Russell's ideas It is easily my favourite chapter and well worth the read on its own let alone the whole bookOverall I cannot fault this book Every point which Russell makes is backed up with contemporary affairs and ideologies which continue to exist to this day If you want a refreshing take on how you live your day to day life as an individual who is also part of a society which I assume is a vast majority of you then pick this up

Bertrand Russell ´ Authority and the Individual Text

Education moral evolution social economical intellectual progress First of the famous BBC Reith lectures this wonderful collection delivers Russell at his intellectual bes A book is riddled with smart little insights but without any greater wisdom As such it would be good for a beginner in political philosophy provided he knows there is to learn All in all it is one of the better books in the analytical tradition It doesn't try to be a grand philosophical narrative like The Idea of Justice or A Theory of Justice For that the analytical method is unsuited Analytical philosophers never reach the reuired depth as they do not accept any first principles This noncommittment usually stretches throughout their works even when first principles are not in uestion and thus it is the philosophy of compromise and mediocrity The exceptions I can think of are Anthony De Jasay who while not arguing from first principles still has considerable intellectual courage and Stephen Kershnar who I think is not a philosopher by trade Correction Kershnar is deeply involved in philosophy than I thought judging from his bibliography This is not true of Bertrand Russel but unlike Rawls and Sen he at least doesn't boggle his common sense down with badly executed philosophical ruminationsOne thing Russell consistently gets wrong is economics He has learned nothing from the economists at all He does not go all the way towards the communist insanity but he still believes that state industries are the way towards economic justice and generally distrusts the market There's not much to see there He thinks he knows that the market is evil but competent and the government is benign but incompetent so we should neuter the market and only leave to it what is nonthreatening And yes I am simplifying here but not a lot Again There is not much here No methodology no greater insight into economic matters only clichés Someone who was born too late to be a scientific socialist so he instead wants to adopt a mixed economy I'd have liked this book a lot had Bertrand Russell not tried to make economics but he devotes at least one half of an entire lecture to it and remarks on this topic throughout the book

Text Ö Authority and the Individual ´ Bertrand Russell

Authority and the IndividualSt With a Terminal Essay Philosophy PoliticsFrom Ancient Greek philosophy to the French Revolution to the modern welfare state in Authority the Individual Bertrand Russell CitationsThe fundamental problem I propose to consider in these lectures is this how can we combine that degree of individual initiative which is necessary for progress with the degree of social cohesion that is necessary for survival? In all social animals including man co operation and the unity of a group have some foundation in instinct This is most complete in ants and bees which apparently are never tempted to anti social actions and never deviate from devotion to the nest or the hive Up to a point we may admire this unswerving devotion to public duty but it has its drawbacks; ants and bees do not produce great works of art or make scientific discoveries or found religions teaching that all ants are sisters Their social life in fact is mechanical precise and static We are willing that human life shall have an element of turbulence if thereby we can escape such evolutionary stagnation The strongest and most instinctively compelling of social groups was and still is the family The transition from the family to the small tribe was presumably biologically connected with the fact that hunting could be efficient if it was cooperative and from a very early time the cohesion of the tribe must have been increased and developed by conflicts with other tribes One of the things that cause stress and strain in human social life is that it is possible up to a point to become aware of rational grounds for a behaviour not prompted by natural instinct But when such behaviour strains natural instinct too severely nature takes her revenge by producing either listlessness or destructiveness either of which may cause a structure imposed by reason to break down From those early days down to modem times war has been the chief engine in enlarging the size of communities and fear has increasingly replaced tribal solidarity as a source of social cohesion Always when we pass beyond the limits of the family it is the external enemy which supplies the cohesive force In times of safety we can afford to hate our neighbour but in times of danger we must love him If the unification of mankind is ever to be realised it will be necessary to find ways of circumventing our largely unconscious primitive ferocity partly by establishing a reign of law and partly by finding innocent outlets for our competitive instincts This is not an easy problem and it is one which cannot be solved by morality alone People who live a life which is unnatural beyond a point are likely to be filled with envy malice and all uncharitableness They may develop strains of cruelty or on the other hand they may so completely lose all joy of life that they have no longer any capacity for effort Anyone who hopes that in time it may be possible to abolish war should give serious thought to the problem of satisfying harmlessly the instincts that we inherit from long generations of savages I do not think that ordinary human beings can be happy without competition for competition has been ever since the origin of man the spur to most serious activities We should not therefore attempt to abolish competition but only to see to it that it takes forms which are not too injurious Many people are happier during a war than they are in peace time provided the direct suffering entailed by the fighting does not fall too heavily upon them personally The problem of making peace with our anarchic impulses is one which has been too little studied but one which becomes and imperative as scientific techniue advances I think perhaps the essence of the matter was given by the Red Indian whom I uoted a moment ago who regretted the old life because ‘there was glory in it’ Every energetic person wants something that can count as ‘glory ‘ There are those who get it